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Fish photography equipment tips
Use a fast, prime lens if shooting with a dSLR.
You should try to match the lens to the fish you want to photograph. The best lens depends on the size of the fish, and how close you can approach the fish.
Use 100mm or longer for small, fast or skittish fish. Compact users should zoom all the way in.
Use a 60mm or wider lens for larger fish. Zoom out as much as necessary. Here's an article on choosing underwater macro lenses. The sigma 17-70mm lens works well for larger fish. You can also use a macro lens behind a dome port.
A 1.4x teleconverter can be used to extend the range of your lens for skittish fish. This works especially well for small "darters" like gobies.
If the fish is large and doesn't move much, like a sea dragon, large frogfish or scorpionfish, don't be afraid to photograph it wide-angle - see the last photo on the page.
Schools of fish like to hang out in the corners of reefs, and in higher current areas. One diver even used a fish finder to find a great school to photograph!
Understand the fish's behavior
Knowing a fish's behavior is essential in getting excellent fish photos. This means asking questions where the fish is found, what time of day they are active, and how to best approach them.
Check your settings beforehand
Make sure your camera is set to the proper aperture and shutter speed. I start at F8, 1/125th on a dSLR, or F5.6, 1/200th on a compact.
Do a test shot on a stationary object to see if the background color is what you expect.
Have your camera on the fastest focus mode, usually continuous focus, spot focus mode. You want your camera to instantly shoot when you press the shutter.
Position your strobes before coming close to the fish. Watch out for areas that could give hot spots. https://www.uwphotographyguide.com/fish-photography
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